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Romans chapter 3
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Romans chapter 6
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Romans chapter 9
Romans chapter 10
Romans chapter 11
Romans chapter 12
Romans chapter 13
Romans chapter 14
Romans chapter 15
Romans chapter 16

Bible Study on the Epistle to the Romans

ROMANS 1:16-23     This section covers the thesis statement for the book of Romans in vv16-17, where the Gospel is the Power of God for the salvation (from the Wrath of God [v18]) of everyone who has received the Righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ and His faithful work on the cross.

ROMANS 1:24-32     Finishing up chapter 1 of Romans, we see the full corruption of sin under God's wrath. The final state of humanity is described in v32: "For although [we] know (very well) God's Righteous decree that those who do such things deserve death, [we] not only continue to do these very things but also approve of those who practice them."

ROMANS 2:1-16     Romans chapter 2 begins by addressing the self-righteous person who doesn't see themselves in chapter 1, but the Apostle Paul indicts all human beings under the condemnation of God, storing up wrath for themselves on the Day of Judgment.

ROMANS 2:17-29     Having charged Gentiles as sinners under wrath in chapter 1 and the self-righteous person under the same condemnation in the first half of chapter 2, now the Apostle Paul zeroes in on the Jewish person who rests upon the Law and boasts in knowing the one true and living God, demonstrating that Jewish people too are sinners under the wrath of God... for a true Jew is one who has a circumcised heart.

ROMANS 3:1-8     Having charged all humanity as sinful, under the holy wrath and Righteous condemnation of God, the Apostle Paul anticipates 3 objections that could be brought against what he is saying: 1 What's the point of being a Jew? 2 What's the point of being faithful? and 3 What's the point of being good?

ROMANS 3:9-20     The Apostle Paul now summarizes everything he has been saying up until this point, that Jews and Gentiles alike are all under sin. Then he seals this verdict with quotations from the Holy Scriptures to show that there is no one Righteous, not even one, no one who does good... there is no fear of God before our eyes. The perfect Law cannot save, in that we cannot meet its perfect standard and so be declared Righteous in the eyes of God. Instead the Law exposes our sin and makes us keenly aware of our imperfection.

ROMANS 3:21-31     In this passage, the Apostle Paul unveils God's great solution to our great problem of sin. The Law exposes our wickedness, that we fall far short of God's glory, and so are under God's just wrath for our sin. But apart from the Law, God has made manifest His Righteousness through the faithful obedience of Christ Jesus on the cross, which redeems all those who put faith in Him, propitiating the wrathful condemnation of God that was hanging over them.

ROMANS 4:1-12     Having laid the foundation of the Gospel in chapters 1-3, Paul now turns to consider how faith can be the mechanism by which God accredits Righteousness to a person, and Paul holds up Abraham as the original example, whereby Abraham's faith in the promise-keeping God is credited to him as Righteousness in Genesis 15:6.

ROMANS 4:13-25     Paul continues his argument in chapter 4 that the object of Abraham's faith was the God who raises the dead and calls into existence things that do not exist. The former corresponds to our faith in Christ, while the latter corresponds to Abraham and Sarah having a son of promise (Isaac) in their extreme old age.

ROMANS 5:1-11     In this passage, Paul talks about the peace Christ's death achieved that reconciles the holy God with us His enemies. God demonstrates His love through Christ's death for undeserving, ungodly sinners.

ROMANS 5:12-21     Having talked about the means of justification in ch4 (faith) and the basis of justification in ch5a (Christ's sacrificial death), now the Apostle Paul turns to the application of justification in ch5b. For just as Adam was the federal head of humanity whose original transgression subjected all his descendants to sin and death, Christ is the federal head of His people whose Righteous act of obedience on the cross brings grace and Life for His spiritual offspring.

ROMANS 6:1-14     In Romans 6, the Apostle Paul addresses the corollary of the Gospel: doesn't it give us licence then to sin? His answer: No, because we have participated in the death of Christ to walk in newness of life in Him. In this passage Paul uses the first of 3 analogies to explain the Christian's relationship to sin (death-->life, slavery-->freedom, bad marriage-->good marriage).

ROMANS 6:15-7:6     The answer continues with 2 more analogies in order to describe the Christian's relationship to sin, first: slavery, that Christians are freemen who have been set free from the tyrannical bondage of sin to serve a new Master; and second: marriage, that Christian's have died to the old-self, and having been freed from the law of marriage, they have now married a new Husband.

ROMANS 7:7-25     Now the Apostle considers how sin springs to life in the flesh, taking advantage of the loophole afford by the Law to bring spiritual death to a person. This creates a bifurcation within the Christian who desires in his or her mind to please God by obeying His Law but struggling with the sin that still resides in the members of the flesh. Only Christ can deliver from this wretched situation.

ROMANS 8:1-4     How can there be no condemnation whatsoever for those who belong to Christ Jesus? It is because the holy Law could not save--it could only condemn, and so God Himself acted by sending His own beloved Son as a sin offering to fulfill the dikaioma (righteous-requirement) of the Law by going to the cross as a perfect sacrifice.

ROMANS 8:5-8     Christians have the responsibility to walk in holiness. The mind pervaded by the flesh is in hostility towards God, does not want to love God or keep His Law in submission to Him--indeed it cannot. In contrast, the mind pervaded by the Spirit desires to please God, leading to life and peace.

ROMANS 8:9-17     The Holy Spirit who dwells within the genuine Christian is the Spirit of Jesus Christ, so that Christ's privilege as the legitimate Son of addressing the Father with full intimacy becomes our privilege as adopted children in right relationship with God.

ROMANS 8:18-27     The suffering that must be endured in this life by God's children will eventually give way to glorious glory. In the meantime, all creation groans as a broken and ruined and corrupted universe, looking forward eagerly for re-creation on the final Day. We too groan in our suffering and hardships, longing for salvation when we receive our glorious resurrected bodies. And meanwhile, the Spirit is our Paraklete (Comforter) who helps us in our weaknesses, groaning transcendently along with us to align our prayers with the will of the Father.

ROMANS 8:28-30     The ultimate Good that God is working all things together for those who love Him is the glorification that Paul has been talking about, when we shall live forever in the very presence of God, in a new creation with eternal, glorious Christ-like bodies. But the plan that God set-in-place beforehand is not some ad hoc idea, but it spans from eternity past to eternity future, beginning with God's active foreknowing, through His predestination and calling to justify His people through Christ, and to bring them ultimately to a glorification so sure, so set-in-stone in the sovereign will of God that it can be put in the past tense as something already accomplished.

ROMANS 8:31-39     If God actually followed through on what He prevented Abraham from doing, namely, the slaying of His One-and-Only precious beloved Son, in order to purchase His elect people, then where are the charges? They've been dropped. Where is the condemnation? It's been propitiated, satisfied and justified. Therefore there is absolutely nothing in all creation that can separate God's elect from His love that is contained in Christ Jesus.

ROMANS 9:1-5     Now in Romans 9, the Apostle Paul begins to address the implicit question left hanging at the end of ch8: If nothing can separate us from the love of God... then what about the Jewish people? Has not God rejected them? And if God's love can be separated from them, then can it not be separated from us as well? Paul declares his heartfelt sorrow over general Jewish rejection of the Gospel, listing out all the blessed benefits they had received as the people of God, the greatest of all being the incarnation of the God-become-flesh, Jesus Christ.

ROMANS 9:6-18     Inspired by the Holy Spirit, the Apostle Paul addressed the Jewish rejection of the Gospel by pointing to God's sovereignty over the human heart. There are 2 Israels: the Israel of the flesh (Ishmael, Esau) and the Israel of the Promise (Isaac, Jacob). Israel of the flesh has rejected the Gospel because of God's sovereign hardening, so that His purpose in election of Israel of the Promise might stand. It does not depend upon human (free) will or exertion, but rather upon the God who shows sovereign mercy, for whom He wills He mercies, and whom He wills He hardens.

ROMANS 9:19-29     God is the divine Potter who has every sovereign right to do with the clay as He sees fit, and the clay has no right to talk back to God and question His purposes. God can create pots for dishonourable use, prepared for destruction, just as He can create pots for honourable use, prepared for glory.

ROMANS 9:30-10:4     Jesus Christ is the end of the Law with regard to Righteousness. There can be no Righteousness sought in the Law outside of the perfect Righteousness of Christ bestowed by God through faith in Jesus. To establish one's own righteousness in an effort to earn God's favour through keeping the Law is actually to reject God's Righteousness in Christ.

ROMANS 10:5-13     The two sources of righteousness are the Righteousness that comes by faith in Christ or the righteousness that comes by perfect adherence to the Law. When a person seeks to establish their righteousness on the basis of the Law, they attempt both to ascend to heaven by their own effort, rejecting Christ's divine identity, and to escape death (the Abyss) on their own, shunning Christ's sacrificial death. The Righteousness that comes by faith, however, is found in the mouth that repentantly confesses: "Jesus is Yahweh" and in the heart that genuinely believes that God raised Him from the dead as vindication of His salvific work on the cross.

ROMANS 10:14-21       In this section Paul emphasizes God's instrumentality of human evangelists as He delivers the Gospel through sending, preaching and hearing. How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ!

ROMANS 11:1-10       The Apostle defines what he means by God's foreknowledge to argue that right up to and including Paul's day, God has always reserved for Himself a remnant of faithful believers. Even if the majority of Israel has been hardened, the elect remnant remains.

ROMANS 11:11-24       In this section Paul uses the imagery of an olive tree, many (most!) of whose branches have been broken off so that wild olive shoots can be grafted into the tree, where both the remaining natural branches (the elect Jewish Christian remnant) and the ingrafted branches (the elect Gentile Christians) are nourished together by the same holy Gospel root.

ROMANS 11:25-36       Paul reveals a secret mystery: that once the fullness of the Gentiles has been brought in, there will be a great return of Israel to God in accepting the Gospel of Jesus. The overwhelming thought of God binding all over to disobedience that He might have mercy on all propels Paul into doxology: Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are his judgments and how inscrutable his ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been his counselor? Or who has given a gift to him that he might be repaid? For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.

ROMANS 12:1-8       As chapters 1-11 lay the theological foundations of the Gospel, Paul now in chapter 12 launches into practical instruction for the Christian life. Because of the Gospel, therefore live this way in response. Christians are called to offer their bodies as living sacrifices as they seek to be transformed by the renewal of the mind in alignment with the good, pleasing and perfect will of God.

ROMANS 12:9-21       A Christian is to live out genuine love in the church and society, hating evil and clinging to what is good, overcoming the former with the latter.

ROMANS 13:1-14       Taken as a whole, chapter 13 covers both tablets of the 10 Commandments, the first section dealing with the ultimate authority of God as represented by the civic authorities He has set in place, so that we give honour where it is due, and the second section covering love of neighbour. Love is the fulfillment of the Law as love for God overflows in love for neighbour.

ROMANS 14:1-23       A practical application of how love is to be worked out in the church centers on how those who are stronger in the faith interact with those who are weaker. The strong brother is not to think little of the weak brother, and the weak brother is not to judge the strong brother, for there is One Master above both to Whom they shall both have give an account.

ROMANS 15:1-13       Christ is the example for both strong and weak in faith, for Christ did not please Himself but substituted Himself for His people, and so His people are to accept one another as Christ has accepted them.

ROMANS 15:14-33       Paul ends the content of his epistle to Rome by reminding the believers there of his ministry to the Gentiles and by sharing his plans to visit Rome soon that he might be sent on to Spain and see the Gospel reach the farthest limits of the known world.

ROMANS 16:1-27       The last chapter of the book of Romans is a kind of post script, where the Apostle takes time to greet those he knows in Rome and passes on final blessings for the church. The longest greeting section of all Paul's epistles, it offers little gems of insight into the life and network of the early church.

Now to Him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages but has now been disclosed and through the prophetic writings has been made known to all nations, according to the command of the eternal God, to bring about the obedience of faith—to the only wise God be glory forevermore through Jesus Christ! Amen.

Soli Deo gloria